Yang Y, Wang SY, Huang ZF, Zou HM, Yan BR, Luo WW, Wang YY
Cell Res. 2016 Mar;26(3):288-303
Recognition of viral dsRNA by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) leads to induction of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines, and innate antiviral response. Here we identified the RNA-binding protein Mex3B as a positive regulator of TLR3-mediated signaling by expression cloning screens. Cells from Mex3b(-/-) mice exhibited reduced production of IFN-β in response to the dsRNA analog poly(I:C) but not infection with RNA viruses. Mex3b(-/-) mice injected with poly(I:C) was more resistant to poly(I:C)-induced death. Mex3B was associated with TLR3 in the endosomes. It bound to dsRNA and increased the dsRNA-binding activity of TLR3. Mex3B also promoted the proteolytic processing of TLR3, which is critical for its activation. Mutants of Mex3B lacking its RNA-binding activity inhibited TLR3-mediated IFN-β induction. These findings suggest that Mex3B acts as a coreceptor of TLR3 in innate antiviral response.